‘Topless’ images | A bias exploration activity

Topless image

This activity is inspired by something I saw on a project I was on although that particular activity was being used to explore gender roles. Since then I’ve used ‘topless images’ many times with my learners. Whether or not you want to explore biases and stereotypes, it’s a really productive speaking activity that gets everyone talking.


Objective

  • Explore biases, stereotypes and their impact
  • Develop oral fluency in this context

topless photos ELT

Materials

  • You will need to keep an eye out for images that are sure provoke a discussion on biases.

Preparation

  • Snip the tops of the images and place them on slides or print them out.

Procedure

  • Put learners into small groups.
  • Bring up each image and ask learners to come up with a backstory for the person in the image.
  • Take whole class feedback (Learners will generally suggest that A is a Hindu/Indian woman who is getting married, B is an Asian female model and that C is a Scottish bagpiper).

Debrief 

  • You can either display the original images and tell learners who these people are or ask them to visit the Huffington Post articles they’re taken from and confirm their backstories.
    • A is from http://www.huffingtonpost.in/2016/11/08/heres-theresa-may-looking-gorgeous-in-a-saree/
    • B is from http://www.huffingtonpost.in/2016/11/04/80-year-old-model-crushes-stereotypes-with-his-runway-swagger/
    • C is from http://www.huffingtonpost.in/2016/11/07/indias-first-female-bagpiper-is-a-self-taught-delhi-girl/
  • I usually keep QR codes ready and ask each group to send a representative to scan the QR Code on his or phone, access the article, skim and discuss it with their group members. Alternatively, you could stick the articles up on the walls of your classroom.
  • Ask learners to discuss how similar or different the real stories are from the back stories they came up with. Ask them to consider what this might reveal about their biases and the impact stereotypes have on their thinking. Get them to discuss what kind of impact this might have on their interactions with others, at work and in their personal life.

Here are the original pictures:

Picture1.png

Image attribution –  fair use for educational purposes: 

  1. Here’s Theresa May Looking Gorgeous In A Saree (Link), Huffington Post, 09/11/2016

  2. 80-Year-Old Model Crushes Stereotypes With His Runway Swagger (Link), Huffington Post, Suzy Strutner, 04/11/2016

  3. This Woman, Who Claims To Be India’s First Female Commercial Bagpiper, Has Made Some Really Cool Music (Link), Huffington Post, Anwesha Madhukalya, 07/11/2016

The headless black and white image is in the public domain.

Action songs for engaging YLs

Action songs.jpg

At the weekend, I attended another workshop at Adhyayan. This one was on Action Songs and was facilitated by three students, Becky, Bonnie & Rachel, from the Royal Central School of Speech & Drama in London. One of my CPD goals this year is to develop my ability to work with YLs and Action Songs couldn’t have come at a better time.  I’ve divided the activities we did into warmers & energisers (sans songs!) and ones that used songs.

By the way, if you’re unfamiliar with the term, action songs are as the words suggest, songs that involve actions.

Warmers & energisers

Ball game 

Students stand in a circle and toss three or more balls to each other. In round one, they say their own names while passing the ball. In round two, they say the name of the person they’re passing the ball to and in the final round, they don’t say anything all and indicate they’re about to toss the ball with eye contact.

Ha Ha Yeah 

A tweak of the classic Hee Haw Ho. Students stand in a circle with one in the middle. The student in the middle puts his or her palms together and points to another student while saying “HA”. Students who are pointed at by the one in the middle must raise their hands over their heads, and also say  “Ha”. The two students on either side need to do a chopping gesture and say “Ha yeah”. An additional tweak is to ask students who are out to die the most dramatic death to rejoin the game.

Splat 

A variation of Ha Ha Yeah. The student points an imaginary gun at a student in the circle. This student then ducks. The students who are to the immediate right of the student who ducks must shoot each other with imaginary guns while saying ‘splat’ really loudly.

Counting … eyes closed 

Students sit in a circle with their eyes closed or heads down. The group needs to count to 20 without interrupting each other. The T starts by saying one. Any student can then say two. If students talk on top of each other, the T starts the count again. This is a brilliant activity for teaching the value of listening, being patient and supporting your peers.

Similarities & differences

Students walk around the space and when the T calls out a number, they form a group of that size. They then have a minute to discuss their similarities and present a still image representing these similarities. The other groups try to guess what the similarity might be. Repeat for differences and other variables.

Seven-up

Students stand in a circle and each person says a number in sequence from one to seven. While students say a number, they should also indicate the direction by folding the left or right hand across their chest. They can change directions at any time and their neighbours need to stay alert. The person who says seven places her hand on top of her head and says either seven or seven-up. The direction of the hand indicates whether the person on the right or the left needs to start again at one.

Action songs

Everywhere we go 

T  leads this call and response. Here are the lyrics and here’s a protest march using the same tune.:

Everywhere we go,

People want to know

Who we are

Where we’re from

So we tell them

We’re from <city’s name>

Mighty, mighty <city’s name>

My name is <name>

(and then everyone sings) Her name is <name>

And then it goes around the circle with these last two lines until everyone’s had a chance to share their names.

Number game 

T shows the students how to sing this song after which the students take over. The pitch rises as the numbers ascend and falls as the numbers descend. Many thanks to Anahita from Adhyayan for recording the tune for us.

1

1 2 1

1 2 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

When students have mastered this sequence, ask them to now do it backwards from 8. Then make them put it all together (start at 8 and then when they get to 1, start the ascending sequence).

Number-finger game 

This one’s a bit tough but lots of fun. Get the students to count on their fingers as they sing the numbers. And here’s Anahita with the tune.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4

5 1 2 3

4 5 1 2 3

4 5 1 2 3

4 5 1 2 3

4 5 1 2

3 4 5 1

2 3 4 5 1

etc,

The pirate song 

You can get the tune from this YouTube video but the lyrics I experienced were a bit different

When I was one

I broke my thumb

*The day I went to sea

I climbed aboard a pirate ship

and the Captain said to me

We’re going this way, that way

Forward, backwards

Over the Irish Sea

A bottle of rum

To fill my tum

That’s the life for me

Second stanza: When I was two, I broke my shoe (and then repeat from *)

Third stanza: When I was three, I sat on a bee (and then repeat from *)

Fourth stanza: When I was four, I knocked on the door (and then repeat from *)

Fifth stanza: When I was five, I felt alive (and then repeat from *)

After the facilitators got us to sing this as a whole group, they divided us into smaller groups and got us to create our own verses but substituting English numbers for Hindi ones.  For example, when I was ‘ek’, I baked a cake the day I went to sea etc.  and then teach our version to the rest of the group. A lovely little adaptation to bring some multilingualism into the classroom.

Listen & respond

Students listen to a piece of music (in our case, it was by Moby) and respond to it in groups either through a freeze frame, drama or dance.

The grand old duke of York 

Teach the students the lyrics of this song along with some appropriate actions. You can get some inspiration from this YouTube clip.

Oh, The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men;
He marched them up to the top of the hill,
And he marched them down again.

And when they were up, they were up,
And when they were down, they were down,
And when they were only half-way up,
They were neither up nor down.

When students get a hang of it, ask them to swap actions on up and down. So instead of pointing up when they say up, they should point down. Then ask them to do the actions without saying the words up and down. Finally ask them to do the reverse actions without saying up and down.

Bear hunt

The T starts this off by doing a call and response but students will get a hang of the chorus pretty quickly and after the second stanza, you’ll need to do call and response with just the new stanzas and not the chorus.  You’ll need to add appropriate actions – here’s a great video by the original author of the Bear Hunt, Michael Rosen (lyrics may differ a bit)

We’re goin’ on a bear hunt
We’re going to catch a big one,
I’m not scared
What a beautiful day!

Oh-no Grass!
Long wavy grass.
We can’t go over it.
We can’t go under it.
Oh no!
We’ve got to go through it!
Swishy swashy! Swishy swashy! Swishy swashy!

We’re going on a bear hunt…

Oh-no!
A river!
A deep cold river.
We can’t go over it.
We can’t go under it.
Oh no!
We’ve got to go through it!
Splash splosh! Splash splosh! Splash splosh!

We’re going on a bear hunt…

Oh-no!
Mud!
Thick oozy mud.
We can’t go over it,
We can’t go under it.
Oh no!
We’ve got to go through it!
Squelch squerch! Squelch squerch! Squelch squerch!

We’re going on a bear hunt…

Oh-no!
A forest!
A big dark forest.
We can’t go over it.
We can’t go under it.
Oh no!
We’ve got to go through it!
Stumble trip! Stumble trip! Stumble trip!

We’re going on a bear hunt…

Oh-no!
A snowstorm!
A swirling whirling snowstorm.
We can’t go over it.
We can’t go under it.
Oh no!
We’ve got to go through it!
Hooo wooo! Hooo wooo! Hooo wooo!

We’re going on a bear hunt…

Oh-no!
A cave!
A narrow gloomy cave.
We can’t go over it.
We can’t go under it.
We’ve got to go through it!
Tiptoe! Tiptoe! Tiptoe!
WHAT’S THAT!
One shiny wet nose!
Two big furry ears!
Two big goggly eyes!
IT’S A BEAR!

RUN!
Back through the cave!
Tiptoe! Tiptoe! Tiptoe!
Back through the snowstorm!
Hoooo woooo! Hoooo woooo! Hoooo woooo!
Back through the forest!
Stumble trip! Stumble trip! Stumble trip!
Back through the mud!
Squelch squerch! Squelch squerch! Squelch squerch!
Back through the river!
Splash splosh! Splash splosh! Splash splosh!
Back through the grass!
Swishy swashy! Swishy swashy! Swishy swashy!

Back home!

Now comes the really fun part. Divide students into groups and ask them to come up with their versions. They’ll have to think of something to hunt and six places they will need to travel through and the actions that will accompany their song. As students get their song ready, give them chart paper, colours, glitter and miscellaneous craft supplies and ask them to draw the thing they’re hunting as well as their path through these six places. Each group then teaches their song to the rest of the students.

Living machine 

Students stand in a circle. Tell them that they’re going to construct a living machine.  A student goes into the middle of the circle and performs a repetitive action along with a sound. The other students join this student one by one and construct a living machine. Ask students to construct a new living machine, this time using more expansive gestures and actions.

Heads, shoulders, knees & toes

The facilitators used this classic action song to suggest that content could be taught through action songs. They first got us used to the song along with the actions:

Head, shoulders, knees and toes, knees and toes

Head, shoulders, knees and toes, knees and toes

And eyes and ears and mouth and nose

Head, shoulders, knees and toes, knees and toes

And then taught us the French version.

Tête, épaules, genoux pieds, genoux pieds

They elicited that to a child learning a language, this can sound like gibberish and that it might be important to isolate word and actions within the song. You continue doing the action (for example touching your head) while saying hmmm.

Hmmm, shoulders, knees and toes, knees and toes

Hmmm, shoulders, knees and toes, knees and toes

And eyes and ears and mouth and nose

Hmmm, shoulders, knees and toes, knees and toes

 

Heads, hmmm, knees and toes, knees and toes

Heads, hmmm, knees and toes, knees and toes

And eyes and ears and mouth and nose

Heads, hmmm, knees and toes, knees and toes

etc.

We then practised the French version with the hmmms before the facilitators asked us to come up with a Hindi version we could teach them. It was actually quite catchy – here are the words in Devanagari & IPA.

सर कंधे घुटने पैर घुटने पैर
/sʌɽ kʌnɖheː gʊtneː pɛ:ɽ gʊtneː pɛ:ɽ/

आंख और कान और मुंह और नाक
/aːŋkʰ oːr ka:n oːr mʊʰ oːr na:k/

We had a lot of time on our hands and this being multilingual India, we also tried our hand at heads, shoulders, knees and toes in Marathi and Tamil.

The extension activity involved working with our groups to come up our action song inspired by heads, shoulders, knees and toes to teach the facilitators something about India. We used the same tune to teach Indian states and capitals and pointing to different parts of our body as if it were a map of the country.

I like the flowers

Teach the students this song along with some actions. Here’s a YouTube clip for the tune.

I like the flowers

I like the daffodils

I like the mountains

I like the rolling hills

I like the fireside

When the lights are low

Singing ah doo wopa, doo wopa, doo wopa doo

Singing ah doo wopa, doo wopa, doo wopa doo

Divide the students into three groups and have them start singing in staggered way. As an extension activity, you can ask students to replace the nouns with ones of their own.

Green screen 

Any of the action songs that involve students creating and performing their own version can be coupled with a green screen recording.  Green screens are used in television studios to enable a computer to superimpose a background during production. They’re quite reasonably priced (around ₹500) like this one. Get students to select an image they’d like as a background and load this into an app on your phone or tablet such as Green Screen for iOS and voila you’ll have a video of students performing with an interesting backdrop. If you’d like to know more about using green screens, check out this video and this lovely showcase of what children can do with green screens.

While action songs are meant for YLs, I have a sneaky suspicion that I am going to be trying them out on my unsuspecting adult learners. 

Image attribution: Public domain

 

Drama inspired storytelling activities

I attended another workshop at Adhyayan who work with schools in India. This one was called Storytelling and Literacy and it was heaps of fun. Like the ones I participated in earlier this year, this one was also led by two drama students who are studying in the UK: Leah & Anthi. Here’s a list of some newish activities I experienced at this workshop:

Warmers & energisers 

  • Gossip: Find out three things from your partner and share it with the rest of the group as if you really like them or you don’t like them or you are telling a secret or gossiping etc.
  • Honey I love you: Students stand in a circle with one person in the middle. The person in the middle must go around saying “Honey, I love, will you please please smile?” The student who this is said to must reply “Honey, I love you but I just can’t smile!” However, no one is allowed to show their teeth so students must fold their lips over their teeth as they says these sentences. If a student slips up and shows his or her teeth, s/he becomes the person in the middle of the circle.
  • Walking around – variation 1: Ask students to walk around the space with purpose. Caution them about forming a circle which is a natural tendency in this activity. They should try to fill up all the space that’s available. Announce a letter such as ‘B’ and ask students to stand still and become starting with ‘b’. Quickly ask those with quirky looking gestures what they’ve become.
  • Walking around – variation 2: Ask students to walk around the space with purpose. When you clap your hands once, they should jump. Do this several times before you introduce two claps when they need to bundle themselves into a ball on the floor. At three claps, they need to become their favourite character from a book. Combine these different claps to get students energised.
  • Name in the cauldron: A variation of name in the bucket. Students stand in a circle and imagine a great big bubbling cauldron at its centre. Students should chuck their name into the cauldron with a lot of energy.
  • Hypnotic finger: Students play this game in pairs. One of the students holds a finger in front of her partner’s eyes and the other follows the finger as if hypnotised. Students take turns, moving around the room.
  • Prop charades: Students use mystery objects in different ways and their peers guess what these objects might be.
  • Mirror game variation 1: Students stand in a circle with one person in the centre. Students then copy everything this person does. .
  • Mirror game variation 2: Students pair off and mirror their partner’s actions.
  • Mad libs: Ask students to write 1. the name of a girl 2. a boy’s name 3. a place 4. a place 5. an article of clothing 6. some more clothes 7. a number.  And here’s the mad lib: 1. ________ met __________. They had their first date at 3. ____________ They got married at 4. __________ She wore 5. _____________ He wore 6. _______________. They had 7. _____________ babies.
  • Running dictation with Shakespeare: Students work in groups to run to a short text from Shakespeare stuck on the wall, memorise a line from it and run back to their teams and tell them what it is. This could be a lead-in to a task that involves analysing or responding to a Shakespearean text.
  • Back to back drawing: Ask students to sit back to back and provide one of them a line drawing and ask them to describe it to their partner who has to draw it. Use this activity to elicit the importance of detail in storytelling. Here’s my drawing – my partner wasn’t familiar with the words fireplace or mantelpiece but we managed 🙂

Cat drawing.jpg

Expectations 

  • Hi-five hands: Give students chart paper and ask them to use a pen to stencil out one of their hands. They should then cut it out and write their expectations on it. Revisit these hands periodically and ask students to hi-five their hands when the expectation is met.

Storytelling

  • Using interactive stories to engage children: I ask a lot of questions during storytelling but I can’t recall asking students perform actions and make noises as they listen along. Leah used the story of Anansi the Spider and the Tiger. Each time she would say Anansi, she would get us make little spiders with our hands and when she’d say tiger, she’d get us to growl and make a tiger face.
  • Draw your favourite part of a story: After you finish telling the story, ask students to draw their favourite part. Mine was when Anansi tricks a snake into tying himself to a bamboo.

dav

  • Story sequences: Ask students to then stand in the sequence of the story with the picture they’ve drawn.
  • The girl on the hill: Get students to stand or sit in a circle and tell them about a girl who really wanted to fly so she climbed a hill and found a lot of feathers there. Students must work in pairs to construct a frame that explains what happens next. They mustn’t move when they present this frame to their peers. Students then guess what the story behind this image might be.
  • Guild of archaeologists: Tell the students that they are Egyptologists on a dig in the desert and that they uncover a mysterious tomb. Show them an object (anything will do but Leah had a little plastic plate that was painted black. She held it gingerly and said it was found in the tomb. She then passed it around asking students to guess what it was by saying “I think it’s the Pharoah’s heart …” and holding it as if it were a heart.
  • And then what happened: Students sit in a circle and co-construct a story by asking each other “and then what happened?”
  • Prop game: Pass around a box of mystery objects and ask students to come up with as many creative uses for it as they can.  This could be limited by lexical sets. For example, imagine this stapler as different objects related to sports
  • The Walrus and the Carpenter: Read the poem out to the students with a lot of drama. Then give a stanza to pairs of students and ask them to create an image that represents these lines. They can use a little bit of movement if they need to (this is called image theatre by the way).
  • Music & art-based prompt: Play some instrumental music and ask students to draw or sketch as they listen to it. Then ask them to summarize their art work by jotting down a feeling. Ask students who’ve written down similar feelings to get together. Ask them to now write down the name of an object. Groups need to write a short story using the five words. Ask each group to pick a storyteller to narrate their stories to the rest of the students using interactive storytelling techniques.
  • Imaginary friend: Ask students if they had an imaginary friend when they were growing up. Get them to draw their imaginary friends and ask them to share stories about their imaginary friends. You can also get them to enact how they play with their imaginary friends. Here’s my imaginary friend:

dav

  • The key: Tell students to imagine that they are going about their business when they discover a mysterious key in an envelope (Leah told us a longer story – I can’t remember it but it ended with a key in an envelope). Students now need to write a story narrating what happens next. They should focus on the ‘who’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of this mystery key.
  • Shakespeare’s couplets: Take two lines from different Shakespearean plays and cut them out so that you have one line to give to each student. Students mingle and find their partner (for example “Double, double toil and trouble” and “Fire burn and cauldron bubble”). Students then present the scene where their only lines of dialogue are the ones they’ve been given. They must however plant the scene in a non-Shakespearean setting. For instance, these lines from Macbeth could be uttered by a couple of tired cooks.

Coolers

  • Soundscape: Get all the students to lie flat on the ground with their heads in the centre of the circle with the feet. Ask them to close their eyes and imagine that they are in a forest. Ask them to make the sounds of the forest. Then lead them out to a beach and have them create the sounds they would hear near the sea. If you’re doing this with a group of teachers, you could have them imagine the sounds of their current and their ideal classroom.

Leah was also kind enough to recommend Games for Actors and Non-actors by Augusto Boal, a companion piece to Friere’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed and is based around a school of thought called the Theatre of the Oppressed. I had a look at the book and I don’t think I’ll get around to trying out all the activities in this lifetime!

A smorgasbord of drama inspired activities

drama-activities

On a whim, I attended a Facilitator workshop at Adhyayan who work with schools in India and it turned out to be a lot of fun. It was facilitated by Jemima and Nina, students from the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama in London who are in India doing workshops and working with schools as a part of their study in applied theatre. The teachers and trainers I work with are always chewing my ear off with their requests for warmers and I got a veritable smorgasbord from Jemima and Nina who were kind enough to recap all of them at the end of each day and encourage participants to adapt them for other uses.

Activities for checking in 

I liked how they used the term ‘check-in’ instead of warmer. Their rationale was that participants or students need to check in to the special micro-community at a workshop or in their school and need some way of physically transitioning into the role they’ll play in this micro-community.

  • Action introduction: Introduce yourself with an action that expresses how you feel e.g., I yawn and say “My name is Adi”. All the other participants repeat the same action and say “His name is Adi”.
  • Throw your name in a bucket: Have participants stand in a circle and ask them to imagine that there’s a big red bucket in the centre. Have them throw their names into the bucket. As they perform the action of throwing, they say their names really loudly.
  • Bing Bong Name: Participants stand in a circle and the facilitator stands inside the circle. She points at any one participant who must raise their hands and say “Bing” at a higher pitch, she then immediately points at someone else who has to drop down and say “Bong” at a lower pitch. The third person she points to must say their own name. The facilitator continues the sequence of bing, bong, name.
  • Name impulse: Get participants to sit in a circle. The facilitator is also a part of the circle. The facilitator turns to the participant to her left and says “one two three go”. The participant must then say her own name to the person to her left as quickly as possible. This person then says his own name etc. For example, Abha, Neel, Sarita, Hema, Varun etc.  Once the participants have had a go at it, ask them how much time they  think they can complete a full circle in and then ask them to beat the clock. The facilitator times them as they complete the name impulse circle. Now suggest that there are two teams, team A (the circle to the left of the facilitator) and team B (the circle to the right of the facilitator). Get both teams to compete against each other – this is tricky because the names will need to cross at some point. Time them and announce the winning team. Then, ask team A to raise their hands, and then team B (obviously, everyone will raise their hands for both teams) and applaud all participants for winning and beating the clock.
  • Impulse clap: Exactly the same as name impulse but participants pass along a clap.
  • Line up alphabetically: Ask participants to line up alphabetically without speaking to each other and then form a circle. I know this warmer but I hadn’t realised how apt it was for beginning a workshop and challenging participants to remember each others’ names.
  • Likes & dislikes: Have participants stand in a circle. Each participant introduces the person to her left by saying “This is Rhea. She likes reading, and she dislikes rainy days”. They are allowed to make up the other person’s likes and dislikes but the first letter/sound of the like or dislike must be the same as the person’s name. What I liked about this simple activity is how it subtly suggests to learners that there is no right or wrong answer.
  • An object you are: Ask participants to describe themselves as an object using the words “If I were an object, I would be a …” Participants then introduce themselves using this sentence with an appropriate action.

Activities for introducing the topic 

  • Post-its: Each participant writes five qualities of, for example, a facilitator. She then works with a partner to whittle the 10 they have collectively down to five. Participants then share their qualities in a whole class discussion while a volunteer records their items in a collaborative mindmap.

Activities for energising 

  • Boom chicka boom: My absolute favourite. It’s a call response style chant. This YouTube video suggests that it’s meant for kids but I’m going to use it with adults – it’s too much fun to pass up.

I said Boom chicka boom

I said Boom chicka boom

I said Boom chicka rocka chicka rocka chicka boom

Ah haan

Oh Yeah

One more time

Say it (quietly/loudly/opera style/in an English accent/grandma style/rap style

  • Hee Haw Ho: Get everyone standing in a circle. Place your palms together and stretch out your hands pointing at someone across the circle while saying HEE. The person across the circle places her palms together and stretches her hands above her head while saying HAW. The two people adjacent to her place their palms together sideways as if chopping wood and chop away at the HAW person while saying HO. the HAW person then points to someone else and says HEE and so on. Make sure everyone is saying the sounds with a lot of energy.
  • Sssss… strawberry: Participants stand in a circle with the facilitator in the middle. The facilitator points to one of the participants and says Ssssstrawberry. This participant must say “Strawberry” before the facilitator completes the utterance. However, if the facilitator points to someone and only says “strawberry”, they mustn’t say anything.
  • Number swap: Make chits with numbers on them, as many as there are participants. Everyone stands in a circle with one person in the middle. Announce the range of numbers e.g., there are 14 participants so we have 14 numbers. The person in the middle calls out a pair of numbers from this range except her own such as 4 and 12. Participants who have these chits need to discretely indicate to each other that they have these numbers and swap places without the person in the middle grabbing one of their spots. Introduce challenge into the activity by asking the person to call out two or three pairs. Periodically ask participants to place all the chits in the middle and take new ones. You might need to mark out positions using chalk or some such.
  • Swapping places: Everyone stands in a circle. A pair of participants make eye contact and swap places without speaking. There should only be one pair swapping at any point of time. Then ask two pairs to swap simultaneously, then three or more. Participants are still not allowed to talk to each other and must coordinate non-verbally through eye contact.
  • Banana song: This call-response chant was shared by one of the participants at the workshop. The children dance along while repeating the words, acting out the verbs.

Peel banana, peel peel banana

Chop banana, chop chop banana

Eat banana, eat eat banana

Smash banana, smash smash banana

Shake banana, shake shake banana

  • Zip zap boing: Participants stand in a circle. One person sort of claps his hands together to the person to his right while saying ZIP. This person can pass the ZIP along to the person to her right by saying ZIP. She could also pass it to someone across the circle by pointing using both hands and saying ZAP. Participants can also BOING in response to a ZIP to change its direction. The action for boing is a bit like a bit of wound up spring with your hands in the air. Here’s the confusing bit: you can’t boing a boing, boing a zap, zap a boing or zap a zap.
  • Zombie: Participants stand in a circle with one person in the middle who is the zombie. In the first variation of this activity, the zombie puts her arms out and approaches one of the participants in the circle. This participant needs to make eye contact with someone else who says their own name out loud. The zombie then changes directions with a near target. The trick is to make eye contact and get someone to say their own name before zombie gets to you. In the second variation, the person being targeted by the zombie says someone else’s name to get the zombie to change directions.
  • 7-up: Participant sit or stand in a circle. Each person says a number in sequence: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 but the seventh person says 7-up while placing their hand on their head. The direction of the hand indicates who should start counting again from 1 (the person to the left or right). Now ask participants to choose another number and replace it with a sound. As the group gets progressively confident, get them to replace one more number with an action.
  • Jump in, jump out: Participants jump in to the circle when you say “jump in”. They must repeat your words. Get them used to the other instructions “jump out”, “jump left” and “jump right”. Then introduce some complexities: do the opposite of what I say, but say what I say; do what I say but the say the opposite of what I say etc.
  • Who stole the cookie: This is a call response chat. Get it started along with some accompanying actions like slapping the front of your thighs, clicks and claps and then progressively introduce the rest of the chant.

Everyone: Who stole the cookie from the cookie jar

Everyone: Tina stole the cookie from the cookie jar

Tina: Who me?

Everyone: Yes you!

Tina: Couldn’t be!

Everyone: Then who?

Tina: Amit stole the cookie from the cookie jar.

Amit: Who me?

etc.

Activities for sharing

  • The sun always shines on … : Participants stand in a circle with one person in the middle. The person in the middle says “The sun always shines on people …” and completes the sentence with something that is true about themselves such as “… people with black hair”. Everyone with black hair then swaps places. The person in the middle will need to run and grab someone else’s spot so that there’s a new person in the middle. Once participants have got used to the procedure, ask them to share deeper things about themselves. For example, in a teacher training context, you could say “The sun always shines on teachers who feel nervous before walking into a new classroom”.
  • Agree disagree compass: Ask participants to imagine that there’s a compass in the room and the directions read ‘agree’, ‘strongly agree’, ‘disagree’ and ‘strongly disagree’. Read out statements and ask participants to move to different sides of the room. Ask them to share their reasons or experiences.

Activities for connecting & collaborating 

  • Ribbon shapes: Get a long length of ribbon and tie it so it becomes a circle. Ask participants to hold a piece of the ribbon and form a perfect circle. Challenge them to create different shapes such as triangles, squares, rectangles, and pentagons without placing it on the ground while working with some constraints. The constraints you could impose include not talking to each other, eyes closed or both.
  • Routes: I blogged about a similar activity drawn from the improv repertoire several years ago. Get everyone standing in a circle.
    • Introduce route 1: Have all the participants raise their hands. The facilitator calls out the name of a participant who lowers her hand. This process continues until all hands are lowered. The last person to get called needs to say the facilitator’s name. Now, get participants to become comfortable and quicker with this route (no more raising or lowering of hands).
    • Introduce route 2: Stop route 1 and introduce a new route. Ask participants to raise their hands. The facilitator walks to a participant who then walks to someone else etc. until all hands are raised. Point out that this route does not involve talking. Now, get participants to become comfortable and quicker with this route (no more raising or lowering of hands). If participants find themselves adjacent each other, encourage them to visibly walk out in a loop so it’s clear that movement has happened.
    • Merge routes 1 & 2: Start route 1 again and once participants have become comfortable with it, introduce route 2 so there are two routes running concurrently.
    • If participants are able to crack this challenge, introduce subsequent routes such as throwing a ball.
  • Tower building: Standard tower building with a twist. Give the participants blutac, paper clips and post-its. Give them a couple of minutes to plan how they’ll build a tower using these resources. At the end of the planning time, take one participant from each group who took on a leadership role and swap them. Give participants time to build their freestanding towers. Ask them to then reflect on how swapping their team members may have affected their performance.
  • Balloon pop: Ask participants to blow a balloon each and name them. Participant share the names of their balloons. Announce that they have three minutes at the end of which they must have safeguarded their balloons then handout thumb tacks. Debrief by asking participants why they did what they did and how the act of naming the balloon made you feel far worse when your balloon was popped.
  • Yes let’s: Anyone in the group can use the stem” Let’s (fly like airplanes) and go for a whirl around the room. Everyone else responds by saying “Yes let’s” and does similar actions around the room. Participants can spontaneously come up with their own Let’s statements.

Activities for language development 

  • ABC: Each participant has to share a sentence with the format of Person, Thing and Place starting from the same letter such as Adi sells apples in Amsterdam. The facilitator stands in the middle and points to people and says a letter. This person needs to quickly make a sentence with three nouns (person, thing, place) starting from the same letter.
  • Picture drawing: You’ll need two copies of the same picture for this activity. It’s probably better to have a picture that has lots of different elements and characters in it. We had a stylized illustration from a children’s book with lots of children and animals at a zoo. Divide your class into two groups and select a volunteer in each group. The picture is given to the volunteer but she is not allowed to share it with the rest of the group. One group asks only close ended questions of their volunteer who must answer using only ‘yes’ or ‘no’ responses. The group then tries to draw what they think the picture contains from these responses. The other group is allowed to only ask open ended questions. This group must also draw what they think the picture looks like. While debriefing, elicit how important it is to ask a combination of both open and close ended questions while facilitating, and how the two serve different purposes and often work in tandem in getting a discussion going.

Activities for going on a breaking

  • Lunch fish: Tell participants that they look hungry but they’ll need to first catch a fish for lunch. Place one hand horizontally in front of you (this is the water line), and use your other hand to mime a fish poking around for food. Tell participants to clap at the same time to catch the fish when it comes to the surface.

Activities for coming back from a break 

  • Aah sound: Suggest that the letter A or sound aah can be said in many ways. Demonstrate some. then ask participants to turn to the person to their right and express how they are feeling at that point using some form of the Aah sound. Now ask them to turn to the person to the left and do the sound that was just shared with them. Then, get the participants to stand up. Everyone collectively throws their sound into the middle of the circle.

Activities for gaining attention

  • Ensemble clap: Tell participants that they must watch you and clap at the same time. Bring your hands close together and clap when they are least expecting it. Challenge them to watch you closely and clap at the same time.

Activities for storytelling 

  • Three person image: Participants stand in a circle and spontaneously become parts of an emerging story. Participant A comes into the centre and takes up position and says something like “I’m a gecko on the classroom wall”. Participant B then joins A in the centre and says “I’m the fly the gecko is trying to catch”. Finally participant C joins them and says “I’m the little boy who is more interested in the gecko than in the lesson.”
  • Whoosh: You’ll need to prepare a story with lots of characters. Participants stand in a circle. As you read the story and introduce characters, tap participants on their shoulders. Participants enter the circle enact the story being read as one of the characters. Prime the participants to notice when your fist goes up in the air because that means they all need to do an old-style toilet flushing motion while saying WHOOSH. Participants in the centre head back and the facilitator continues reading the story while selecting new participants to play characters.
  • Freeze frame: Ask participants to work in pairs to share a positive or a negative teaching experience or similar. Then re-pair participants and ask them to share the stories they heard. Re-pair participants once again and ask them to choose from the four stories they now have (besides their own). They should role play the story and select a visual frame from it that they can share with the group. Get each pair to come up and set up this visual frame. Ask the other participants to describe the frame by first using “I see” statements followed by “I think” statements. The facilitator then taps each of the ‘actors’ in the frame and asks them to share what the person in the story is thinking at that point. Then ask the pair to validate what was shared.

Warm up exercises for process drama

  • Lead with your …: Ask participants walk around but being lead by different parts of the body. Announce the first prompt: lead with your nose, then gradually bring in others, let your elbows lead you, your knees, your shoulders etc. Walk slow, walk faster, higher, lower. Ask participants how this might change their ‘character’.
  • Exploring voices: Ask participants to make for example a pirate noise and walk around making this noise. Introduce layers: do it quieter, louder, shriller etc.

Activities for reflecting 

  • I am sentences: Ask participants to think about their identity at the moment and write as many sentences as possible starting each with the stem “I am”. Give them a couple of minutes. Then ask them to write sentences about someone in their profession who they look up to using the stem “S/he is”. Lastly ask participants to think of a child who has made a big impact on them using the “This child is”. Get participants to analyse their sentences for patterns, commonalities and surprises.

Activities for closing

  • Hooked thumb circles: I don’t know what to call this one. Ask participants to form a small tight circle, placing on their right hand towards the centre, palm down, thumb out to the left. Ask participants to now close their fingers around their neighbour’s thumb. You’ll have a really tight circle kinda like the one in this picture. Ask each participant to share one take-away from the session.

Image attribution: Backstage – The artists of Kathakali by Sreeram Narayan | Flickr | CC BY-NC 2.0

Reviewing metalanguage using a Jeopardy-style quiz

Jeopardy_game_board.jpg

Love it or hate it, it’s difficult to get away from metalanguage and terminology in teacher training. I find metalanguage especially empowering for experienced instructors who’ve had very little formal training but that’s a topic for another post. It’s a good idea though to review terminology continually using interesting activities to reduce the cognitive load.

Sarah Priestly’s tweet from the TESOL Italy event jogged my memory about jeopardy which I’ve used frequently to review declarative and conceptual knowledge.

Have you ever seen Jeopardy? It’s a slightly addictive American TV quiz show where contestants select dollar amounts & categories from a board usually by saying something like “World capitals for 300”. Players are then presented with questions worded as statements which they must answer using the trademark formulaic phrase “What is _________”


Objective

  • Review conceptual information in a game show like format.

Materials 

  • Flippity quiz show board with your questions & answers
  • Laptop & LCD projector
  • Internet connectivity

Preparation 

  • Flippity works through Google spreadsheets so you’ll need to have logged into your Google account.
  • Access this template. It’ll prompt you to make a copy – the template will get automatically saved in your Google Drive before it opens.
  • You will see a 6*5 table with existing questions and answers.
  • Change the categories (row 2) to your own.
  • Replace the questions and answers with your own. Ideally, a question at 600 should be more challenging than one at 100.
  • You can’t have more than 30 questions (6*5) but you can have fewer. Place an X in the category column or question cell you don’t want to use.
  • You can add media to the questions:
    • For images, get the image link and insert it into this format: Ask your question?[[Image:http://blahblahblah.jpg%5D%5D
    • For Youtube videos, get the link from the share section below the video. Don’t use the link in the address bar: Ask your question?[[https://youtu.be/pFhSKPOF_lI]]
    • For Vocaroo audio clips, record your audio and insert the URL using this format. Ask your question?[[http://vocaroo.com/i/s1OEopSqfxQn]]
  • When your quiz board is ready:
    • Go to File and select Publish to the Web. Copy the URL
    • Scroll down and access the second worksheet ‘Get the URL here’
    • Paste the URL into the green cell
    • The Flippity link quiz will magically appear.

Flippity quiz how to.gif

Here’s my quiz on ELT terminology. The questions and answers in this quiz are sourced from Thornbury, S. (2006). An A to Z of ELT. Macmillan.

Procedure

  • Divide your participants into groups. Flippity lets you keep score within the app and allows flexibility in terms of number of groups.
  • Project the link so everyone can see it.
  • Groups choose a category and corresponding point denomination. Bring up the question – instead of getting just one group to answer, you could get all the groups to write down their answer before displaying it on the screen.
  • Award points to groups who got the answers right (the app will automatically increase the score by the denomination of the question)

Variations

  • While the display isn’t perfect on mobile devices, it’s manageable. You could have participants play against each other individually in small groups. All you’d need is one connected device per group and some way of sharing the URL (a shortened URL using goo.gl or a QR Code).

Coming back to Sarah’s tweet, I haven’t tried out Jeopardy Labs yet but it looks fairly straightforward and easy to use but I don’t think it allows for offline usage which would have given it a leg up over Flippity.

Icebreakers | Book review

Icebreakers Ken Jones.jpg

Title: Icebreakers. Book of Activities

Authors: Ken Jones

Publisher: Training Sources | Viva Books

Year of publication: 2009

Companion resources: NA

Source: British Council Library

I’m on the hunt for quick icebreakers and energizers for use in the teacher training I facilitate for the state sector where establishing some sort of bonhomie is extremely critical for keeping people focused.

Icebreakers is divided into games, exercises, and simulations (a slightly arbitrary distinction). The overall feel is very dated and the activities are overtly complex. The first three alone are quite representative of the rest of the book.

Birthday Scores: Participants compare each others birthdays and form groups to get the highest scored based on a point system (born on the same day 12 points each etc.). Each activity is divided into Facilitator’s notes and Players’ notes which also includes some kind of handout. The instructions in the Player’s notes are generally so verbose that I suspect participants would spend most of the activity trying to understand the written instructions.

Diverse points: Participants meet and talk in a leisure area and then move over to a negotiation area where they allocate 100 points between themselves using one of four combinations 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 or 60/40. This activity has some potential but it’s not clear what participants are meant to be negotiating about (Who seems to have the best personality? Eeek!)

Growing paper clips: Take a look at these instructions for an activity where participants join their own paper clips to others while introducing themselves and mind you these are the instructions that are meant to be handed over to the participants.

icebreakers.jpg

It’s hard to understand why you would want to run a simulation (in fact they’re not really simulations, they’re role plays) as an icebreaker. For instance, in Monolith, participants pretend to be archaeologists and sociologists examining a stone object in the south American jungle.

I’m sure I might be able to dig out some ideas I could adapt from this book but I just don’t have the patience to go through each activity carefully. On the flip side, excerpts from this book could serve as a useful demonstration of how not to write activities.

Icebreakers is available as a low-priced edition for India but it’s really not one for the resource bookshelf.

Inquiries from the obverse side | A questioning activity

500-and-1000-rupees

Last night, the Indian Prime minister in a televised address to the nation, demonetised our highest denomination currency notes: ₹500 and  ₹1000, in a bid to curb corruption, terrorism, and money laundering. It was really quite shocking and unanticipated, particularly because it was effective midnight and would affect ₹14,000,000,000,0000 (US$21,038,416,000,00) worth of cash in circulation.

So it seems an appropriate time to revisit an old activity for practising question forms using currency notes. I’m not sure who originally came up with this activity – it’s been around for a while as an ELT game as well as a soft skills activity. Here’s my version.


Objectives 

  • Form Wh or open-ended questions accurately
  • Probe more deeply to uncover information
  • Reflect on how routine might spawn mindlessness.

Materials 

  • Each pair will need one currency note of any denomination between them which they’ll hopefully supply themselves. I like to get them to pull out a ₹10 note because it’s got really interesting design features on the reverse side such as some animals and the words ‘ten rupees’ in 15 of India’s 21 official languages. (BTW, did you know that the front of a note is called the obverse side?) 

ten rupees.jpg

Procedure 

  • Make two columns on the board and label them “Descriptive questions” and “Evaluative questions”.
  • Elicit question stems from students such as “How many … “, “What do you see …”, “Where exactly …” under descriptive; and “What do you think of… “, How do you find …”, “What’s your opinion on …” under evaluative.
  • Divide students into pairs.
  • Ask each pair to pull out a single note from their wallets and hold it between them. Students take turns to ask each other descriptive questions about what they see on their side such “How many animals are there?” “Which ones?” “Which way is the rhino facing?” etc.
  • Quickly get feedback on how familiar they were with the currency note. You’ll generally find people are quite ignorant about what’s on these notes despite handling them day in and day out.
  • Now ask pairs to flip the note over so each student is now looking at the side that they were questioned about previously. Have pairs ask each other evaluative questions such as “Which of the three animals do you like best? Why?”

Debrief & feedback 

  • Based on your rationale for using this activity, you might want to ask questions to elicit how we see things without really noticing them and how this observational blind spot might affect our work and relationships i.e., how routine might spawn mindlessness
  • You could focus on the students’ ability to probe and ask questions going from general to more specific, building on previous questions & responses.
  • Alternatively, you could simply highlight language issues with question formation or explore the ability to ask questions in a less interrogative, more conversational way.

I’m curious about which currency note or bill you’d choose to use if you were to conduct this activity with your students.